24 Aug 2021

24 Aug 2021

Review status: this preprint is currently under review for the journal WCD.

Mediterranean cyclones: Current knowledge and open questions on dynamics, prediction, climatology and impacts

Emmanouil Flaounas1, Silvio Davolio2, Shira Raveh-Rubin3, Florian Pantillon4, Mario Marcello Miglietta5, Μiguel Angel Gaertner6, Maria Hatzaki7, Victor Homar8, Samira Khodayar9, Gerasimos Korres1, Vassiliki Kotroni10, Jonilda Kushta11, Marco Reale12,13, and Didier Ricard14 Emmanouil Flaounas et al.
  • 1Institute of Oceanography, Hellenic Center for Marine Research, Athens, Greece
  • 2National Research Council of Italy, Institute of Atmospheric Sciences and Climate (CNR-ISAC), Bologna, Italy
  • 3Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, Israel
  • 4Laboratoire d’Aérologie, Université de Toulouse, CNRS, UPS, IRD, Toulouse, France
  • 5National Research Council of Italy, Institute of Atmospheric Sciences and Climate (CNR-ISAC), Padua, Italy
  • 6University of Castilla-La Mancha, Faculty of Environmental Sciences and Biochemistry, Toledo, Spain
  • 7Department of Geology and Geoenvironment, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, 10679 Athens, Greece
  • 8Meteorology Group, Physics Department, Universitat de les Illes Balears, Palma, Mallorca, Spain
  • 9Mediterranean Centre for Environmental Studies (CEAM), Valencia, Spain
  • 10Institute of Environmental Research and Sustainable Development, National Observatory of Athens (NOA), Athens, Greece
  • 11Climate and Atmosphere Research Center (CARE-C), The Cyprus Institute, Nicosia 2121, Cyprus
  • 12National Institute of Oceanography and Applied Geophysics - OGS, Via Beirut, 2, 34151, Trieste, Italy
  • 13Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, ICTP, ESP group, Trieste, Italy
  • 14CNRM, Université de Toulouse, Météo-France, CNRS, Toulouse, France

Abstract. A large number of intense cyclones occur every year in the Mediterranean basin, one of the climate change hotspots. Producing a broad range of severe socio-economic and environmental impacts in such a densely populated region, Mediterranean cyclones call for coordinated and interdisciplinary research efforts. This article aims at supporting these efforts by reviewing the status of knowledge in the broad field of Mediterranean cyclones. First, we focus on the dynamics and atmospheric processes that govern the genesis and development of Mediterranean cyclones. Then, we review the state of the art in forecasting cyclones and relevant high-impact weather. Particular attention is given to Mediterranean cyclone tracks and their physical characteristics in current and future climate. Finally, we focus on the impacts produced by cyclones and we outline the future directions of research that would advance the broader field of Mediterranean cyclones as a whole.

Emmanouil Flaounas et al.

Status: final response (author comments only)

Comment types: AC – author | RC – referee | CC – community | EC – editor | CEC – chief editor | : Report abuse
  • RC1: 'Comment on wcd-2021-55', Anonymous Referee #1, 05 Oct 2021
  • RC2: 'Comment on wcd-2021-55', Anonymous Referee #2, 08 Oct 2021
  • RC3: 'Comment on wcd-2021-55', Anonymous Referee #3, 22 Oct 2021
  • EC1: 'Comment on wcd-2021-55', Tim Woollings, 05 Nov 2021

Emmanouil Flaounas et al.

Emmanouil Flaounas et al.


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Short summary
This is a collective effort to describe the state of the art in Mediterranean cyclone dynamics, climatology, prediction (weather and climate scales) and impacts. More than that, the paper focuses on the future directions of research that would advance the broader field of Mediterranean cyclones as a whole. Thereby, we propose interdisciplinary cooperation, additional modelling and forecasting strategies and highlight the need for new impact-oriented approaches on climate prediction.