Articles | Volume 3, issue 4
https://doi.org/10.5194/wcd-3-1237-2022
https://doi.org/10.5194/wcd-3-1237-2022
Review article
 | 
07 Nov 2022
Review article |  | 07 Nov 2022

The stratosphere: a review of the dynamics and variability

Neal Butchart

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Short summary
In recent years, it has emerged that there is an affinity between stratospheric variability and surface events. Waves from the troposphere interacting with the mean flow drive much of the variability in the polar vortex, sudden stratospheric warmings and tropical quasi-biennial oscillation. Here we review the historical evolution of established knowledge of the stratosphere's global structure and dynamical variability, along with recent advances and theories, and identify outstanding challenges.