Articles | Volume 4, issue 4
Research article
06 Nov 2023
Research article |  | 06 Nov 2023

Cold wintertime air masses over Europe: where do they come from and how do they form?

Tiina Nygård, Lukas Papritz, Tuomas Naakka, and Timo Vihma


Interactive discussion

Status: closed

Comment types: AC – author | RC – referee | CC – community | EC – editor | CEC – chief editor | : Report abuse
  • RC1: 'Comment on egusphere-2023-889', Anonymous Referee #1, 21 Jun 2023
  • RC2: 'Comment on egusphere-2023-889', Anonymous Referee #2, 06 Jul 2023
  • AC1: 'Comment on egusphere-2023-889', Tiina Nygård, 09 Aug 2023

Peer review completion

AR: Author's response | RR: Referee report | ED: Editor decision | EF: Editorial file upload
AR by Tiina Nygård on behalf of the Authors (09 Aug 2023)  Author's response   Author's tracked changes   Manuscript 
ED: Referee Nomination & Report Request started (11 Aug 2023) by Gwendal Rivière
RR by Anonymous Referee #1 (12 Sep 2023)
ED: Publish as is (22 Sep 2023) by Gwendal Rivière
AR by Tiina Nygård on behalf of the Authors (25 Sep 2023)
Short summary
Despite the general warming trend, wintertime cold-air outbreaks in Europe have remained nearly as extreme and as common as decades ago. In this study, we identify six principal cold anomaly types over Europe in 1979–2020. We show the origins of various physical processes and their contributions to the formation of cold wintertime air masses.