Articles | Volume 4, issue 4
https://doi.org/10.5194/wcd-4-943-2023
https://doi.org/10.5194/wcd-4-943-2023
Research article
 | 
06 Nov 2023
Research article |  | 06 Nov 2023

Cold wintertime air masses over Europe: where do they come from and how do they form?

Tiina Nygård, Lukas Papritz, Tuomas Naakka, and Timo Vihma

Viewed

Total article views: 954 (including HTML, PDF, and XML)
HTML PDF XML Total Supplement BibTeX EndNote
683 241 30 954 75 14 15
  • HTML: 683
  • PDF: 241
  • XML: 30
  • Total: 954
  • Supplement: 75
  • BibTeX: 14
  • EndNote: 15
Views and downloads (calculated since 16 May 2023)
Cumulative views and downloads (calculated since 16 May 2023)

Viewed (geographical distribution)

Total article views: 954 (including HTML, PDF, and XML) Thereof 1,006 with geography defined and -52 with unknown origin.
Country # Views %
  • 1
1
 
 
 
 
Latest update: 29 Feb 2024
Download
Short summary
Despite the general warming trend, wintertime cold-air outbreaks in Europe have remained nearly as extreme and as common as decades ago. In this study, we identify six principal cold anomaly types over Europe in 1979–2020. We show the origins of various physical processes and their contributions to the formation of cold wintertime air masses.