Articles | Volume 4, issue 4
Research article
20 Oct 2023
Research article |  | 20 Oct 2023

Waviness of the Southern Hemisphere wintertime polar and subtropical jets

Jonathan E. Martin and Taylor Norton

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Cited articles

Archer, C. L. and Caldeira, K.: Historical trends in the jet stream, Geophys. Res. Lett., 35, L08803,, 2008. 
Bals-Elsholz, T. M., Atallah, E. H., Bosart, L. F., Wasula, T. A., Cempa, M. J., and Lupo, A. R.: The wintertime Southern Hemisphere split jet: Structure, variability, and evolution, J. Climate, 14, 4191–4215, 2001. 
Barnes, E. A.: Revisiting the evidence linking Arctic amplification to extreme weather in midlatitudes, Geophys. Res. Lett., 40, 4734–4739, 2013. 
Barnes, E. A. and Polvani, L.: Response of the midlatitude jets, and of their variability, to increased greenhouse gases in the CMIP5 models, J. Climate, 26, 7117–7135, 2013. 
Barnes, E. A. and Screen, J. A.: The impact of Arctic warming on the midlatitude jet-stream: Can it? Has it? Will it?, WIREs Clim. Change, 6, 277–286,, 2015. 
Short summary
The polar and subtropical jets are important weather-producing features and influential governors of regional climate. This study considers trends in the waviness of the two jets in Southern Hemisphere winter using three data sets and reveals three important results: (1) the waviness of both jets has increased since about 1960, (2) only the maximum speed of the subtropical jet has increased, and (3) both the polar and subtropical jets have been shifting poleward over the last several decades.