Articles | Volume 1, issue 2
Research article 27 Oct 2020
Research article | 27 Oct 2020
Mechanisms and predictability of sudden stratospheric warming in winter 2018
Irina A. Statnaia et al.
No articles found.
Pirkka Ollinaho, Glenn D. Carver, Simon T. K. Lang, Lauri Tuppi, Madeleine Ekblom, and Heikki Järvinen
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 2143–2160,Short summary
OpenEnsemble 1.0 is a novel dataset that aims to open ensemble or probabilistic weather forecasting research up to the academic community. The dataset contains atmospheric states that are required for running model forecasts of atmospheric evolution. Our capacity to observe the atmosphere is limited; thus, a single reconstruction of the atmospheric state contains some errors. Our dataset provides sets of 50 slightly different atmospheric states so that these errors can be taken into account.
Nicholas L. Tyrrell and Alexey Yu. Karpechko
Weather Clim. Dynam. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for WCDShort summary
Tropical Pacific sea surface temperatures (El Nino) effect the global climate. The Pacific-to-Europe connection relies on interactions of large atmospheric waves, with winds and surface pressure. We looked at how mean errors in a climate model effect its ability to simulate the Pacific-Europe connection. We found that even large errors in the seasonal winds did not affect the response of the model to an En Nino event, which is good news for seasonal forecasts which rely on these connections.
Lauri Tuppi, Pirkka Ollinaho, Madeleine Ekblom, Vladimir Shemyakin, and Heikki Järvinen
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 5799–5812,Short summary
This paper presents general guidelines on how to utilise computer algorithms efficiently in order to tune weather models so that they would produce better forecasts. The main conclusions are that the computer algorithms work most efficiently with a suitable cost function, certain forecast length and ensemble size. We expect that our results will facilitate the use of algorithmic methods in the tuning of weather models.
Janne Lampilahti, Hanna Elina Manninen, Katri Leino, Riikka Väänänen, Antti Manninen, Stephany Buenrostro Mazon, Tuomo Nieminen, Matti Leskinen, Joonas Enroth, Marja Bister, Sergej Zilitinkevich, Juha Kangasluoma, Heikki Järvinen, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Tuukka Petäjä, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 11841–11854,Short summary
In this work, by using co-located airborne and ground-based measurements, we show that counter-rotating horizontal circulations in the planetary boundary layer (roll vortices) frequently enhance regional new particle formation or induce localized bursts of new particle formation. These observations can be explained by the ability of the rolls to efficiently lift low-volatile vapors emitted from the surface to the top of the boundary layer where new particle formation is more favorable.
Natalia Korhonen, Otto Hyvärinen, Matti Kämäräinen, David S. Richardson, Heikki Järvinen, and Hilppa Gregow
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 8441–8451,Short summary
Reanalysis data of the strength of the polar vortex is applied in the post-processing of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) winter surface temperature forecasts for weeks 3–4 and 5–6 over northern Europe. In this way, the skill scores of these forecasts are slightly improved. It is also found that, in cases where the polar vortex was weak at the start of the forecast, the mean skill scores of these forecasts were higher than average.
Victoria A. Sinclair, Mika Rantanen, Päivi Haapanala, Jouni Räisänen, and Heikki Järvinen
Weather Clim. Dynam., 1, 1–25,Short summary
We studied how mid-latitude cyclones are likely to change in the future. We used a state-of-the-art numerical model and performed a control and a
warmexperiment. The total number of cyclones did not change with warming and neither did the average strength, but there were more stronger and more weaker storms in the warm experiment. Precipitation associated with the most extreme mid-latitude cyclones increased by up to 50 % and occurred in a more poleward location in the warmer experiment.
Laura Thölix, Alexey Karpechko, Leif Backman, and Rigel Kivi
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 15047–15067,Short summary
We analyse the impact of water vapour (WV) on Arctic ozone loss and find the strongest impact during intermediately cold stratospheric winters when chlorine activation increases with increasing PSCs and WV. In colder winters the impact is limited because chlorine activation becomes complete at relatively low WV values, so further addition of WV does not affect ozone loss. Our results imply that improved simulations of WV are needed for more reliable projections of ozone layer recovery.
Mika Rantanen, Jouni Räisänen, Juha Lento, Oleg Stepanyuk, Olle Räty, Victoria A. Sinclair, and Heikki Järvinen
Geosci. Model Dev., 10, 827–841,Short summary
This paper describes new software OZO, which is a meteorological tool for both studying and research purposes. OZO can be used for investigating physical mechanisms affecting the development of extratropical cyclones. The software is an open-source tool and the distribution is supported by the authors. OZO will be used as a part of the author's PhD, in which the changes in cyclone dynamics due to warmer climate are studied.
Jarmo Mäkelä, Jouni Susiluoto, Tiina Markkanen, Mika Aurela, Heikki Järvinen, Ivan Mammarella, Stefan Hagemann, and Tuula Aalto
Nonlin. Processes Geophys., 23, 447–465,Short summary
The land-based hydrological cycle is one of the key processes controlling the growth and wilting of plants and the amount of carbon vegetation can assimilate. Recent studies have shown that many land surface models have biases in this area. We optimized parameters in one such model (JSBACH) and were able to enhance the model performance in many respects, but the response to drought remained unaffected. Further studies into this aspect should include alternative stomatal conductance formulations.
Hanna K. Lappalainen, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Tuukka Petäjä, Theo Kurten, Aleksander Baklanov, Anatoly Shvidenko, Jaana Bäck, Timo Vihma, Pavel Alekseychik, Meinrat O. Andreae, Stephen R. Arnold, Mikhail Arshinov, Eija Asmi, Boris Belan, Leonid Bobylev, Sergey Chalov, Yafang Cheng, Natalia Chubarova, Gerrit de Leeuw, Aijun Ding, Sergey Dobrolyubov, Sergei Dubtsov, Egor Dyukarev, Nikolai Elansky, Kostas Eleftheriadis, Igor Esau, Nikolay Filatov, Mikhail Flint, Congbin Fu, Olga Glezer, Aleksander Gliko, Martin Heimann, Albert A. M. Holtslag, Urmas Hõrrak, Juha Janhunen, Sirkku Juhola, Leena Järvi, Heikki Järvinen, Anna Kanukhina, Pavel Konstantinov, Vladimir Kotlyakov, Antti-Jussi Kieloaho, Alexander S. Komarov, Joni Kujansuu, Ilmo Kukkonen, Ella-Maria Duplissy, Ari Laaksonen, Tuomas Laurila, Heikki Lihavainen, Alexander Lisitzin, Alexsander Mahura, Alexander Makshtas, Evgeny Mareev, Stephany Mazon, Dmitry Matishov, Vladimir Melnikov, Eugene Mikhailov, Dmitri Moisseev, Robert Nigmatulin, Steffen M. Noe, Anne Ojala, Mari Pihlatie, Olga Popovicheva, Jukka Pumpanen, Tatjana Regerand, Irina Repina, Aleksei Shcherbinin, Vladimir Shevchenko, Mikko Sipilä, Andrey Skorokhod, Dominick V. Spracklen, Hang Su, Dmitry A. Subetto, Junying Sun, Arkady Y. Terzhevik, Yuri Timofeyev, Yuliya Troitskaya, Veli-Pekka Tynkkynen, Viacheslav I. Kharuk, Nina Zaytseva, Jiahua Zhang, Yrjö Viisanen, Timo Vesala, Pertti Hari, Hans Christen Hansson, Gennady G. Matvienko, Nikolai S. Kasimov, Huadong Guo, Valery Bondur, Sergej Zilitinkevich, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 14421–14461,Short summary
After kick off in 2012, the Pan-Eurasian Experiment (PEEX) program has expanded fast and today the multi-disciplinary research community covers ca. 80 institutes and a network of ca. 500 scientists from Europe, Russia, and China. Here we introduce scientific topics relevant in this context. This is one of the first multi-disciplinary overviews crossing scientific boundaries, from atmospheric sciences to socio-economics and social sciences.
Heikki Järvinen, Teija Seitola, Johan Silén, and Jouni Räisänen
Geosci. Model Dev., 9, 4097–4109,Short summary
This study compares the 20th century multi-annual climate variability modes in reanalysis data sets (ERA-20C and 20CR) and 12 climate model simulations using the randomised multi-channel singular spectrum analysis. The reanalysis data sets are remarkably similar on all timescales, except that the spectral power in ERA-20C is systematically slightly higher than in 20CR. None of the climate models closely reproduce all aspects of the reanalysis spectra, although many aspects are represented well.
Laura Thölix, Leif Backman, Rigel Kivi, and Alexey Yu. Karpechko
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 4307–4321,
J. Tonttila, E. J. O'Connor, A. Hellsten, A. Hirsikko, C. O'Dowd, H. Järvinen, and P. Räisänen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 5873–5885,
H. Vuollekoski, M. Vogt, V. A. Sinclair, J. Duplissy, H. Järvinen, E.-M. Kyrö, R. Makkonen, T. Petäjä, N. L. Prisle, P. Räisänen, M. Sipilä, J. Ylhäisi, and M. Kulmala
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 19, 601–613,Short summary
The global potential for collecting usable water from dew on an artificial collector sheet was investigated by utilising 34 years of meteorological reanalysis data as input to a dew formation model. Continental dew formation was found to be frequent and common, but daily yields were mostly below 0.1mm.
J. Tonttila, H. Järvinen, and P. Räisänen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 703–714,
P. Räisänen, A. Luomaranta, H. Järvinen, M. Takala, K. Jylhä, O. N. Bulygina, K. Luojus, A. Riihelä, A. Laaksonen, J. Koskinen, and J. Pulliainen
Geosci. Model Dev., 7, 3037–3057,Short summary
Snowmelt influences greatly the climatic conditions in spring. This study evaluates the timing of springtime end of snowmelt in the ECHAM5 model. A key finding is that, in much of northern Eurasia, snow disappears too early in ECHAM5, in spite of a slight cold bias in spring. This points to the need for a more comprehensive treatment of the surface energy budget. In particular, the surface temperature for the snow-covered and snow-free parts of a climate model grid cell should be separated.
P. Ollinaho, H. Järvinen, P. Bauer, M. Laine, P. Bechtold, J. Susiluoto, and H. Haario
Geosci. Model Dev., 7, 1889–1900,
N. Korhonen, A. Venäläinen, H. Seppä, and H. Järvinen
Clim. Past, 10, 1489–1500,
M. Abbas, A. Ilin, A. Solonen, J. Hakkarainen, E. Oja, and H. Järvinen
Nonlin. Processes Geophys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not accepted
P. Ollinaho, P. Bechtold, M. Leutbecher, M. Laine, A. Solonen, H. Haario, and H. Järvinen
Nonlin. Processes Geophys., 20, 1001–1010,
J. Tonttila, P. Räisänen, and H. Järvinen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 7551–7565,
T. Viskari, E. Asmi, P. Kolmonen, H. Vuollekoski, T. Petäjä, and H. Järvinen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12, 11767–11779,
T. Viskari, E. Asmi, A. Virkkula, P. Kolmonen, T. Petäjä, and H. Järvinen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12, 11781–11793,
Related subject area
Atmospheric teleconnections incl. stratosphere–troposphere couplingOrigins of multi-decadal variability in sudden stratospheric warmingsTropospheric eddy feedback to different stratospheric conditions in idealised baroclinic life cyclesThe Wave Geometry of Final Stratospheric Warming EventsImpacts of the North Atlantic Oscillation on winter precipitations and storm track variability in southeast Canada and the northeast United StatesThe role of Barents–Kara sea ice loss in projected polar vortex changesOn the intermittency of orographic gravity wave hotspots and its importance for middle atmosphere dynamicsThe role of North Atlantic–European weather regimes in the surface impact of sudden stratospheric warming eventsNonlinearity in the tropospheric pathway of ENSO to the North Atlantic
Oscar Dimdore-Miles, Lesley Gray, and Scott Osprey
Weather Clim. Dynam., 2, 205–231,Short summary
Observations of the stratosphere span roughly half a century, preventing analysis of multi-decadal variability in circulation using these data. Instead, we rely on long simulations of climate models. Here, we use a model to examine variations in northern polar stratospheric winds and find they vary with a period of around 90 years. We show that this is possibly due to variations in the size of winds over the Equator. This result may improve understanding of Equator–polar stratospheric coupling.
Philip Rupp and Thomas Birner
Weather Clim. Dynam., 2, 111–128,Short summary
We use the simple framework of an idealised baroclinic life cycle to study the tropospheric eddy feedback to different stratospheric conditions and, hence, obtain insights into the fundamental processes of stratosphere–troposphere coupling – in particular, the processes involved in creating the robust equatorward shift in the tropospheric mid-latitude jet that has been observed following sudden stratospheric warming events.
Amy H. Butler and Daniela I. V. Domeisen
Weather Clim. Dynam. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for WCDShort summary
We classify by wave geometry the stratospheric polar vortex during the final warming that occurs every spring in both hemispheres due to a combination of radiative and dynamical processes. We show that the shape of the vortex can have impacts on both total column ozone and surface weather following the final warming. These results have implications for prediction and our understanding of stratosphere-troposphere coupling processes in springtime.
Julien Chartrand and Francesco S. R. Pausata
Weather Clim. Dynam., 1, 731–744,Short summary
This study explores the relationship between the North Atlantic Oscillation and the winter climate of eastern North America using reanalysis data. Results show that negative phases are linked with an increase in frequency of winter storms developing on the east coast of the United States, resulting in much heavier snowfall over the eastern United States. On the contrary, an increase in cyclone activity over southeastern Canada results in slightly heavier precipitation during positive phases.
Marlene Kretschmer, Giuseppe Zappa, and Theodore G. Shepherd
Weather Clim. Dynam., 1, 715–730,Short summary
The winds in the polar stratosphere affect the weather in the mid-latitudes, making it important to understand potential changes in response to global warming. However, climate model projections disagree on how this so-called polar vortex will change in the future. Here we show that sea ice loss in the Barents and Kara (BK) seas plays a central role in this. The time when the BK seas become ice-free differs between models, which explains some of the disagreement regarding vortex projections.
Ales Kuchar, Petr Sacha, Roland Eichinger, Christoph Jacobi, Petr Pisoft, and Harald E. Rieder
Weather Clim. Dynam., 1, 481–495,Short summary
Our study focuses on the impact of topographic structures such as the Himalayas and Rocky Mountains, so-called orographic gravity-wave hotspots. These hotspots play an important role in the dynamics of the middle atmosphere, in particular in the lower stratosphere. We study intermittency and zonally asymmetric character of these hotspots and their effects on the upper stratosphere and mesosphere using a new detection method in various modeling and observational datasets.
Daniela I. V. Domeisen, Christian M. Grams, and Lukas Papritz
Weather Clim. Dynam., 1, 373–388,Short summary
We cannot currently predict the weather over Europe beyond 2 weeks. The stratosphere provides a promising opportunity to go beyond that limit by providing a change in probability of certain weather regimes at the surface. However, not all stratospheric extreme events are followed by the same surface weather evolution. We show that this weather evolution is related to the tropospheric weather regime around the onset of the stratospheric extreme event for many stratospheric events.
Bernat Jiménez-Esteve and Daniela I. V. Domeisen
Weather Clim. Dynam., 1, 225–245,Short summary
Atmospheric predictability over Europe on subseasonal to seasonal timescales remains limited. However, the remote impact from the El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) can help to improve predictability. Research has suggested that the ENSO impact in the North Atlantic region is affected by nonlinearities. Here, we isolate the nonlinearities in the tropospheric pathway through the North Pacific, finding that a strong El Niño leads to a stronger and distinct impact compared to a strong La Niña.
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In this paper we investigate the role of the tropospheric forcing in the occurrence of the sudden stratospheric warming (SSW) that took place in February 2018, its predictability and teleconnection with the Madden–Julian oscillation (MJO) by analysing the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) ensemble forecast. The purpose of the paper is to present the results of the analysis of the atmospheric circulation before and during the SSW and clarify the driving mechanisms.
In this paper we investigate the role of the tropospheric forcing in the occurrence of the...