Articles | Volume 4, issue 1
Research article
24 Jan 2023
Research article |  | 24 Jan 2023

Warm conveyor belts in present-day and future climate simulations – Part 1: Climatology and impacts

Hanna Joos, Michael Sprenger, Hanin Binder, Urs Beyerle, and Heini Wernli

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Cited articles

Bader, M. J., Forbes, G. S., Grant, J. R., Lilley, R. B. E., and Waters, A. J.: Images in weather forecasting. A practical guide for interpreting satellite and radar imagery, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, ISBN 10:0521451116, ISBN 13:9780521451116, 1995. a
Bieli, M., Pfahl, S., and Wernli, H.: A Lagrangian investigation of hot and cold temperature extremes in Europe, Q. J. Roy. Meteorol. Soc., 141, 98–108,, 2015. a
Binder, H., Boettcher, M., Joos, H., and Wernli, H.: The Role of Warm Conveyor Belts for the Intensification of Extratropical Cyclones in Northern Hemisphere Winter, J. Atmos. Sci., 73, 3997–4020,, 2016. a
Binder, H., Joos, H., Sprenger, M., and Wernli, H.: Warm conveyor belts in present-day and future climate simulations – Part 2: Role of potential vorticity production for cyclone intensification, Weather Clim. Dynam., 4, 19–37,, 2023. a, b
Bony, S., Stevens, B., Frierson, D., Shepherd, T. G., Sherwood, S. C., Siebesma, A. P., Sobel, A. H., Watanabe, M., and Webb, M. J.: Clouds, circulation and climate sensitivity, Nat. Geosci., 8, 75–96,, 2015. a, b, c
Short summary
Warm conveyor belts (WCBs) are strongly ascending, cloud- and precipitation-forming airstreams in extratropical cyclones. In this study we assess their representation in a climate simulation and their changes under global warming. They become moister, become more intense, and reach higher altitudes in a future climate, implying that they potentially have an increased impact on the mid-latitude flow.